VDM Alloys 276 Plates
Supplier, Manufacturer & Distributor in India,
VDM Alloy 22 Plates is a nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloy with tungsten and extremely low carbon and silicon content supplied, manufactured & distributed by Sailesh Metal Corporation.
VDM Alloy 22 Plates is characterized by:
- Extraordinary resistance across a wide range of corrosive media under oxidizing and reducing conditions
- Particularly high resistance to crevice, pitting, and stress corrosion
VDM Alloy 276 Plates
VDM Alloy 276 Plates Supplier
VDM Alloy 276 Plates Distributor
Physical Properties of VDM Alloy 276 Plates
|Density||Melting range||Relative magnetic permeability at 20 °C (68 °F)|
|8.9 g/cm3 (0.32 lb/in3) at 20 °C (68 °F)||1,325-1,370 °C (2,417-2,498 °F)||1,001 (Maximum)|
|Temperature||Specific heat capacity||Thermal conductivity||Electrical resistivity||Modulus of elasticity||Coefficient of thermal expansion|
Kg · K
|Btu lb ∙ °F||W
m ∙ K
|Btu ∙ in
sq. ft ∙ h ∙ °F
μΩ · cm
Mechanical properties of VDM Alloy 276 Plates
The following minimum values at room and increased temperatures apply to the solution-annealed condition for longitudinal and traverse test samples of the specified dimensions. The properties for larger dimensions must be agreed upon separately.
|Temperature||Yield strength Rp 0.2||Tensile strength Rm|
|Product form||Dimensions||Yield strength Rp 0.2||Tensile strength Rm||Elongation A||Brinell hardness HB|
|Sheet||≤ 5||0.20||≥ 310||≥ 45.0||≥ 730||≥ 105.9||≥ 30||≤ 240|
|Sheet||5-25||0.20-0.98||≥ 280||≥ 40.6||≥ 700||≥ 101.5||≥ 25||≤ 240|
|Strip||0.1-3||0.004-0.12||≥ 310||≥ 45.0||≥ 730||≥ 105.9||≥ 30||≤ 240|
|Rod, bar||≤ 100||≤ 3.94||≥ 280||≥ 40.6||≥ 730||≥ 105.9||≥ 30||≤ 240|
Microstructural properties of VDM Alloy 276 Plates
VDM Alloy 276 has a cubic, face centered microstructure. In the temperature range of 600 to 1,100 °C (1,112 to 2,012 °F), inter-metallic phases can form during longer exposure times or when cooling is too slow. In addition, carbides can dissipate on the grain boundaries, which reduce resistance against inter-crystalline corrosion.
Fabrication and Heat Treatment
VDM Alloy 276 is ideally suited for processing by means of common industrial processing techniques.
Descaling and pickling
Oxides of VDM Alloy 276 and discoloration adjacent to welds are more adherent than on stainless steels. Grinding using extremely fine abrasive belts or grinding discs is recommended. Care should be taken to prevent tarnishing. Be- fore pickling in salt peter hydrofluoric acid mixtures, the oxide layers should be broken up by abrasive blasting or fine grinding, or pre-treated in in a fused salt bath. The pickling baths used should be carefully monitored with regard to concentration and temperature.
VDM Alloy 276 should be machined in the heat treated condition. For reasons of the considerably increased tendency to work hardening in comparison to austenitic stainless steels, a low cut speed at a feed level that is not too high should be selected and the cutting tool should be engaged at all times. An adequate depth of cut is important in order to cut below the previously formed strain-hardened zone. Optimum heat dissipation through the use of large quantities of suitable, preferably aqueous, lubricants has considerable influence on a stable machining process.
It is important that the workpieces are clean and free of any contaminants before and during heat treatment. Sulphur, phosphorus, lead and other low-melting-point metals can result in damage during the heat treatment of VDM Alloy 276.
This type of contamination is also contained in marking and temperature-indicating paints or paints, and also in lubricating grease, oils, fuels and similar materials. Fuels must have as low a sulphur content as possible. Natural gas should contain less than 0.1% by weight of sulphur. Heating oil with a maximum sulphur content of 0.5% by weight is also suitable. Electrical furnaces are to be preferred due to precise temperature control and lack of contaminants due to fuel. The furnace temperature should be set between neutral and slightly oxidizing, and should not change between oxidizing and reducing. The workpieces may not come in direct contact with flames.
VDM Alloy 276 should be hot-formed in a temperature range of 950 to 1,200 °C (1,742 to 2,192 °F) with subsequent rapid cooling in water or in air. Heat treatment after hot-working is recommended in order to achieve optimal corrosion behaviour. For heating up, workpieces should be placed in a furnace that is already heated up to the target value.
The workpieces should be in the annealed condition for cold working. VDM Alloy 276 has significantly higher cold forming properties than the widely used austenitic stainless steels. This must be taken into account during design and selection of forming tools and equipment and during the planning of forming processes. Intermediate annealing is necessary for major cold-working treatment. When cold forming of > 15 %, final solution annealing must be conducted.
Solution annealing should take place at temperatures of between 1,100 and 1,160 °C (2,012 and 2,120 °F). The retention time during annealing depends on the semi-finished product thickness and can be calculated as follows:
- For thicknesses d < 10 mm (0.4 in), the retention time is t = d ∙ 3 min/mm
- For thicknesses d = 10 to 20 mm (0.4-0.8 in), the retention time is t = 30 min + (d – 10 mm) ∙ 2 min/mm
- For thicknesses of d = 20 mm (0.8 in), the retention time is t = 50 min + (d – 20 mm) ∙ 1 min/mm
The retention time commences with material temperature equalization; longer times are generally considerably less critical than retention times that are too short.